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All the non-electric parts are standard bicycle parts. However, there are a few crucial differences when dealing with electric bicycle because:
Because of that, the chain, brakes, tires, etc will wear out faster. Even the bicycle frame stands in front of higher abuse and pressures because of the motor so it also can wear out sooner.
Plenty of bicycle maintenance manuals and tips can be found here and in plenty other websites on the net. In this page, I deal primarily with electric bicycle maintenance tips.
The amount of surface area that touches the ground affects the rolling resistance. High rolling resistance causes resistance.
If you want to reduce the rolling resistance, keep your tires with the proper air pressure which would enables your pedaling effort and the motor to be more efficient.
Electric bicycle riders tends to ride longer compared to there un-motorized brothers. Low air pressure causes the wheel to wear quicker and it just going to get worst on e-bikes.
Wear can develop over time to cracks, cuts and other defects so check it and replace if needed.
On the other hand, do not over-inflate the tire. It can cause blowouts or other tire damage. There should be a mark on the wheel itself which states the range of allowed pressures (Usually in psi units)
With hand pumps, you usually don't have the ability to decide on the psi. Therefore, it is better to use the gas station air pump which also displays the current wheel air pressure. Some gas stations air pumps are not accurate and they may cause major damage to the tire and also to the bicycle rim.
Hub motors puts pressure on the spokes and stretch them.
Check your wheels, especially your hub motor wheel before and after every ride to be sure the wheels are round.
Check the tension of the spokes before and after every ride, same tension should exist in all spokes. Loose spokes or rim that moves a little can cause the wheel to get loose and even fall.
The wheels of your e-bike have hopefully been tensioned and checked during the building process.
After riding, the spokes will start to stretch and the wheels will start to get loosen.
Tight the spokes nipples by your self every once in a while (every 200-400 kilometers, for example) or, more recommend, take it to the bike shop if you have not enough experience with basic bicycle maintenance.
A little side note. Wheels which are easy to take on and off with quick release levers are very useful and comfort.
In some motors configuration which are combined with the gear system, the chain will wear faster than on a conventional bike. It can be easily replaced and it's inexpensive.
Once a month inspect and check for looseness in the chain (stretched enough), shifter levers and derailleur cable anchors. Even check missing or sharp teeth on the cassette.
If your cassette or crank is showing a good deal of wear or has broken teeth, you will probably want to have a shop look at it.
Before every ride, check the e-brakes with the battery on.
E-bikes are faster and this may cause the brakes to wear out quicker. Replace them if there is a great deal of wear.
The brakes cords should be tight to ensure they will act fast when needed. Adjust them on your own or have a visit at the bike shop.
Once a month inspect and check for looseness in the e-brake which stops the motor and the brake which stops the wheel.
The e-bike frame stands in front of a heavy abuse and high pressures because of the motor so it also could wear out sooner then on normal bikes.
Electric bikes are faster the conventional bicycles and you don't want your frame to get broken while riding at 35 km/h!
Every month or so inspect the frame, frame joints and fork for paint cracks, bulges and little cracks. It is a good indicator for a development of a serious fracture.
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