Proper electric bicycle maintenance is really no different than the maintenance needed for any other conventional bicycle. The electric components require little or even no maintenance and all the other bicycle parts require the same maintenance that is needed for any standard bicycle.
But electric bikes require more care since they will usually be ridden farther and faster than a conventional bicycle. And anything that slows the bike down (like dirt in the gears or deflated tires) forces the battery to work harder. This shortens the time between charges and means you can travel less distance on a single charge.
Gas powered vehicles have many different parts that move. An electric bike, in comparison, has very few moving parts. You don’t need any sort of oil change, air filters, spark plugs, etc in an electric bike. You can, by large, maintain and repair your own e-bike.
Basically, an electric bike has fewer components than a typical gas vehicle. Therefore, it is significantly cheaper and easier to maintain.
Keeping your e-bike in great condition is fairly easy and very important so don't neglect it.
You can maintain your bike on your own or you can give it to a bike shop.
Many times you would not find a specialized e-bike store in your area so it is good to know that almost anything can be done at any bike shop.
But there are bike shops who will refuse to work on your e-bike for various reasons.
E-bikes are a new beast in town. Many bike shops don't have the experience of dealing with e-bikes so they would hesitate to take the risk.
Also, many people, for various reasons, buy cheap e-bikes. They assume that if they add electric components to a conventional bike, then the other parts are not as important as if the bike wasn't electric. Also, they maybe don't want to spend too much money as e-bikes cost more then regular bikes and therefore, compromise on some of the components.
Some bike shops will refuse to touch this kind of cheap components. Because they afraid that they will end up ruin something or maybe they are not even familiar with some of this "junk" because above average non-motorized bikes usually don't come with this cheap stuff.
Cleaning is the number one thing you can do in order to ensure your e-bike will serve you for a long time. In the long run, it will save you money and a lot of time waiting for the bike to be repaired.
Ideally, you should clean your e-bike after each ride. But it really depends on your riding style and on how much you ride. A good rule of thumb is that If you ride more then twice or three times a week, clean your bicycle weekly! and once in a while, clean the bike with greater care.
The electrical components don't take kindly to strong water stream. A strong water stream could breach the waterproof seals of the electrical components and even force water in them and cause premature failure.
Therefore, don't use aggressive water sprays or power jets when washing the bike and keep water off the battery as much as you can. Clean gently but thoroughly and make sure that all the outer casing of the electric parts are dry and clean.
Remove any dirt, debris, sand, mud, grit, grime that got caught on the bike and dry it off.
While cleaning, it is a good opportunity to look closely for a worn, loose, cracked, rust, teared or damaged parts. Buckled paint can also be a hint for some parts that need closer inspection.
If you are not sure about something, advise with some knowledgeable friend or take the bike to your bike shop.
After cleaning, it is also advisable to lubricate the chain, levers, derailleur, cables, etc. A clean, lubricated e-bike tends to be faster, smoother and quieter. It's like having a little extra push for free.
Apply the lubricant to the different parts and let it sit a few minutes and then wipe off the excess lubricant with a rag.
After a while, clean the different parts with a degreaser to remove any excess dirt that has been collected on them.
Don't leave the bike out in the rain or snow.
Store it somewhere dry and out of direct sunlight. Overheating the batteries, for example, can cause problems.
Also avoid opening up casings, chargers, etc as you are unlikely to be able to reseal them effectively afterward, making them more susceptible to water damage and other extreme weather conditions.
The frequency of maintenance depends on how much you ride and under which conditions. Recreational riders needs far less maintenance then off-road riders. The harder you ride, the more you have to take care of your bike if you want it to last.
There are various time intervals for proper maintenance. Quick maintenance should be done before & after every ride. And then, every couple of months, a more serious maintenance steps should be taken.
I will specify below which bicycle maintenance steps should be taken with each part and also the recommended time intervals.
With each new pair of e-bike, you should get a manual which include, along other stuff, the basic maintenance procedures (and also the non-basic stuff). It also needs to include the initial setup procedures. (The battery requires initial setup before it's first use, for example)
In case you didn't get it, ask the shop seller to give it to you. You won't always get one. Sometimes, the seller won't have the manuals and sometimes even the e-bike manufacture didn't supply such a manual at all. It can happens sometimes when dealing with cheap e-bikes.
If for some reason, you didn't get the manual after all, look for it inside the different brands pages.
Always remember that if you are uncomfortable performing any of the recommended bicycle maintenance steps, you should give your e-bike to a professional bike shop. I am not offer any warranty, guarantee or responsibility for using the information in this page. Bicycle maintenance is a serious work and unprofessional bike treatment could lead to dangerous results.